REALQUALITY RQ-HIV DNA
REALQUALITY RQ-HIV DNA is a kit for the identification and quantification of the DNA of Human Immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) by Real time PCR
- The device allows the detection and the quantification of the total DNA of HIV-1, group M
- The assay requires only 10 µL of DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)
- If used in combination with the REALQUALITY RQ-HIV DNA STANDARD, it allows the quantification of the viral DNA present in the sample
- The assay shares the same thermal profile of the REALQUALITY Infectious diseases kits
- Validated on main Real time PCR instruments
- The assay includes dUTP/UNG system for preventing carry-over contamination and a fluorescence normalizer.
- Ready-to-use reagents for Real time PCR
- Internal control (amplification of beta-globin gene - BG)
- Positive control (DNA containing fragments of the Human Immunodeficiency virus genome and the BG gene)
HIV-1 is one of the two viruses that cause Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) during the advanced state of infection. It is a Retrovirus, belonging to the genus Lentivirus, whose genome (about 10 Kb) consists of two molecules of single-stranded RNA with positive polarity. Once it enters the target cells (CD4+ T lymphocytes), the viral RNA is reverse-transcribed into double-stranded DNA, which is integrated into the genome of the host cell. Using the latter's transcriptional apparatus, new molecules of RNA and viral proteins are produced which will be assembled and released from the cells as new viral particles. Once integrated, the virus can become latent, avoiding detection by the immune system.
Transmission occurs through direct contact with HIV-infected body fluids, such as blood, sperm, vaginal secretions, or breast milk. Vertical transmission from mother to child can occur during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding.
The HIV-2 virus always belongs to the Lentiviridae genus, shares with HIV-1 the same modes of transmission but is distinct from it both from a genetic and epidemiological point of view. While HIV-1 is a globally spread virus, HIV-2 infections are mainly concentrated in West Africa. The progression of HIV-2 infection is much slower and characterized by a lower viral load.
When we talk generically about HIV, we normally refer to type 1.
However, the ability of the virus to remain latent in the body is the real obstacle to the eradication of HIV infection. For this reason, in parallel to the plasma RNA assay, the quantitative determination of HIV DNA is also of great importance, both for planning and monitoring the therapy.
The relationship between the amount of HIV DNA and residual viremia in patients treated with ART is well known; many studies have also shown the correlation between the amount of HIV DNA and the viremic rise in patients in whom a simplification of therapy has been adopted. Finally, in aviremic patients, the amount of proviral DNA is the only quantifiable parameter.
The HIV DNA detection is also essential in the follow-up of the first 18-24 months of life of children born from HIV-positive mothers. Vertical transmission of the infection can occur during pregnancy, at the time of delivery or during breastfeeding. Viral DNA detection is a tool that allows to verify with certainty the transmission or not of the infection. In fact, the newborn can be positive to antibody tests, following the natural passage of maternal antibodies through the placenta, even in the absence of the actual infection.
This product uses technology patented by Biosearch Technologies, licensed for use in Human Molecular Diagnostic applications.